Comparison of cathode materials
a = 2.82 Å, c = 14.05 Å
a = 2.88 Å, c = 14.18 Å
a = 8.24 Å
|Theoretical capacity (mAh/g)
|Practical capacity (mAh/g)
|O2 evolution during overcharging
|Diffusion coefficient (cm2/s)
|Cost of the metal (US$/kg)
||Straight forward synthesis
High cycle numbers
Good capacity retention
||3V plateau can be used as
lithium source for anode
||Reversibility highly dependent on
synthesis conditions Capacity
fading upon long-term cycling
|Synthesis is tricky Problems of
capacity retention at
high temperature (>50ºC)
Schematic illustration of Li atom stackings for Spinel LiMn2O4.
LiCoO2 Electron microscope photo
LiMn2O4 Electron microscope photo
LiNiO4 Electron microscope photo
C6+ LiMn2 O4↔ Lix C6+ Li1-x
Schematic illustration of the discharge and charge processes of a lithium rechargeable battery
When the battery is charged, the lithium ions in the cathode material (lithium compound) migrate via a separator to between the layers of carbon material that form the anode, and a charging current flows.
When the battery is discharged, the lithium ions in the carbon material that form the anode migrate via a separator to the cathode material (lithium compound), and a discharging current flows.
(a) Raw data of the applied voltage versus time at a constant current charging and discharging cycling,
(b) converted voltage versus capacity curve, the typical charging-discharging curve for a test cell using LixMn2O4 as the major cathode materials.
Li-ion mineral lamp, also call Miners Lamps, Mining Lamps, LED safety lamps, safety lamps, etc
(Enlarge and see more details by clicking the photo)
LAMP 3(2013-11) New All-in-one LED Light Unit Li-ion battery Miner Lamp
|LED miner's lamp (LED cap lamp, LED safety lamp) NEW (2013-11)
WISDOM Lamp 3 is the latest cordless lamp of New Wisdom. Lamp 3 inherited the super brightness, even smaller size, lighter weight, looks more exquisite. More over, Lamp 3 has many new features to bring users more convenience and fun. It can be used not only in underground miners, but also can be used in a variety of scenes and situations, such as outdoor sports, field work, bike, home, etc.
Super bright of 12000 lux: Advanced LED light source of 211 lumens and outstanding drive circuit. Go for hunting!
High capacity of 6200 mAh li-ion battery: 13 hours working time with two cells, high efficiency!
Anti-impact: Super impact resistance! Rolled many times by full size SUV without any damage!!!
Dive to 15 meters: IP68 diving certification, water proof design, completed stainless steel material for all the metal parts.
USB charging: Except the traditional charging
way, it can be charged with potable USB wire!
Battery capacity level: Press the button and hold it for 2 seconds, you will see the battery capacity level indicator for judging your good continuous working time or the charging time.
Lighter: Lighter than iPhone 4S. Models Lamp 3C and 3D just weigh 125g each!!!
Multifunctional lenses: Six types of lenses for option to change lighting scope and lighting intensity to enlarge the application area.
Size: 84x69x50mm, 169g/125g
KL4MS(2014-01) New LED Light Unit Li-ion battery Miner Lamp
|LED miner's lamp (LED cap lamp, LED safety lamp) NEW (2014-01)
The S series WISDOM lamp with cable is specially researched and developed for the mining industry. It is super bright, small size and light weight, with nice appearance. It is not only for miners operating lamps, can also be used in a variety of scenes and situations, such as: outdoors sports, adventure and outdoors work. Amazing super bright of 11000lux in 1 meter! Has passed the IP68 diving certification.
11000 lux brightness: Bright the underground mine! 11000 lux is 3 times brighter than the normal LED miner's cap lamp with cable. Super bright assist the underground mining, very good lighting conditions.
4400 mAh high capacity li-ion battery: High capacity li-ion battery make sure 13 hours working time for option, to meet the demand of longer working time in the underground.
IP68 water proof certificated, diving to more than 15 meters: IP68-the highest level waterproof certification standard for connectors. KL4MS is workable in a long time under water of 15 meters!
New power connector: The magnetic power cord attaches securely and detaches cleanly.
USB charging wire: Fast, convenient, multimode
Nice looking: KL4MS meets the modern aesthetic, enjoyable visual experience.
Feels comfortable: KL4MS ergonomic design, surface matte effect.
Size: 95x38x84mm(size of the battery box), 440/465g
New KL5M(2008-06) LED Light Unit Li-ion battery Miner Lamp
|LED miner's lamp (LED cap lamp, LED safety lamp) NEW (2008-6)
The innovatively designed KL5M LED Li-ion Cap Lamp combines the latest lighting and battery technologies to result in a brighter and lighter cap lamp. Using lithium-ion technology in conjunction with a purpose designed LED the cap lamp is designed in accordance with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS). The KL5M is not only much smaller and ergonomically designed for wearer more comfortable than the traditional lead acid cap lamp, and they are one third of the weight at only 0.6kg. The use of lithium-ion technology also removes numerous hazards associated with the use of lead acid style batteries. Unlike traditional lead acid batteries, lithium-ion contains no dangerous chemicals or heavy metals and requires no maintenance such as topping up of acid. The KL5M significantly reduces cost of ownership with no requirement to replace bulbs and a service life three times longer than lead acid batteries. The cap lamp is also intrinsically safe and CE Certified (EN60079-0:2004, EN62013.1:2002, EN50020:2002, EN50033:1991) for use in explosive atmospheres.
The KL5M was first introduced to the market in 2003 and has undergone constant refinements and improvements. The cap lamp is designed to withstand the harshest underground conditions and is manufactured from impact and temperature resistant Makrolon plastic material. The KL5M when fully charged holds its charge until use and will provide 15 hours of continuous light. To prolong the life of the cap lamp battery, the Lithium-ion battery has an over charge protection system that will automatically cut off the circuit to protect the battery from being over charged. Additionally, there is an automatic power off in the cap lamp so that if the surface of the lamp or the LED is broken it will automatically turn the power off for protection.
The 2007 version of the KL5M LED Li-ion Cap Lamp has many improved features from its predecessor. A purpose designed LED with an upgraded antistatic capacity provides luminous flux of 90-110lm and increased brightness at 7,000-10,000lux. A new radiator in conjunction with the purpose designed LED has significantly reduced the amount of heat experienced at the glass. In addition, the cap lamp's flood and spot light settings are operated by an upgraded push button. As an added safety feature the cap lamp now also incorporates a low battery warning with the last hour of discharge flashing every 5-10 seconds to warn the user. And the version 2008 is mainly improved base the version 2007 to make the lamp absolutely water proof and better usage with the button switch. The KL5M LED Li-ion Cap Lamp has set a new standard in reliability and safety for miner's cap lamps.
NOTE: we have patent of the lamp design, the patent No. is ZL 2006 3 0176325.1
Safety: Contained in a sealed battery case, the product has a short-circuit protection, LED light head lamp and anti-static housing which makes it explosion proof. The miner's lamp is CE Certified for use in explosive atmospheres such as coal mines.
Reliability: Tough housing, optimized design, a solid LED light that uses high efficient IC drivers guarantee the product is durable and strong. The durable Li-ion battery has an over charge protection system to protect the battery from over charging. The cap lamp is suitable for operation under harsh mining conditions.
Portability: Small in size, light in weight, ergonomically designed, maintenance free, simple charging, easy operation. The cap lamp has received praise from many miners and major mining companies.
Efficiency: LED light provides bright, clear, white light. The minimum luminous intensity is 7000-10000lux (at a distance of 1m). The quality of the light is maintained throughout the entire discharge cycle which lasts up to 15 hours. The battery has a life cycle of 1200 charges and discharges.
Environmental: The cap lamp is made from environmentally friendly Li-ion battery and other non hazardous materials. The KL5M is an environmentally friendly product as per RoHS Directive.
Economy: The cap lamp incorporates an environmentally friendly LiMn2O4 battery as a power source. The light is an efficient, high powered LED with a service life of over 30,000 hours. With no need to replace incandescent globes the KL5M eliminates the cost of labor and replacement parts associated with traditional lead acid batteries.
Size: 76x31x79mm(size of the Li-ion battery), 0.6kg
|the lamp of old version of before
||LED miner's lamp (LED cap lamp, LED safety lamp)
Safety: the actions in compact design of the whole product, protection in electrical short-circuit, automatic power-off on the socket, LED light head lamp and anti-static housing make very good feature of explosion-proof.
Reliability: The high strength housing and optimized structure design makes the product function at various power attached, the function of protection for charge and discharge strengthen the reliability of the lamp.
Portability: Small in size, light in weight, portable to carry, free of maintenance, simple charging, easy usage.
Efficiency: light distance≥2500Lux, working hours≥15hours, usage life ≥1200 cycles.
Environmental: li-ion battery is free maintenance, and the material of li-ion battery is environmental.
Economy: duration of usage three times longer than lead and acid mineral lamp, plus the saving in maintenance fee makes the product more compatible in price.
Size: 76x31x79mm, 0.56kg